The stimulus for active milk secretion comes largely from the hormone prolactin, which acts on mammary alveolar cells and promotes continual milk production and release. The enzymes lipase and transferase is stimulated by prolactin. Hormonal control of the glycerol precursors and the enzymatic release of fatty acids is also associated with insulin, which stimulates the uptake of glucose into the mammary cells.

Oestrogen level is higher during pregnancy which inhibits the secretion of prolactin. If the level of oestrogen is too low then also there is no prolactin secretion. If the level is normal then the pituitary gland discharges prolactin.

It is a complicated theory made simplified by Mother Nature in the form of inexpensive Mother’s milk “a perfect food for the child”.


Mother’s milk contains energy,protein, fat,lactose,calcium,phosphorus,magnesium,zinc,trace of iron,copper,iodine,selenium,vitamin A, vitamin B1,vitamin B2,niacin,vitamin B6,folate, ,vitamin C,vitamin D. A mother should be healthy and well fed to provide such a nutritious milk. What else does an infant need from its mother!

Synthesis of protein in milk

Protein present in normal milk are specific to mammary secretions and are not identified in any quantity elsewhere in nature. The protein in milk is derived by two ways. Some protein is synthesized in the mammary gland and rest by the plasma. Plasma derived proteins are found abundantly in the early secretory product colostrum. Casein, lactalbumin, beta-albumin, which is the main component of milk are synthesized in the gland from amino acid precursors . The essential amino acids and some of the non essential amino acids are directly from the plasma. Some of the non essential amino acids are synthesized by the alveolar cells of the gland.

The uniqueness of the mother’s milk cannot be prepared in any factory but only by a mother. It is the best food for an infant.

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